Universiteit Leiden

Probiotics vs Prebiotics vs Synbiotics

Probiotics vs Prebiotics vs Synbiotics 'Red union and garlic' are sources of prebiotics. Picture by Juan Torres

What is actually the difference between probiotics, prebiotics and synbiotics?

The root of the word probiotic comes from the Greek word pro, meaning "promoting" and biotic, meaning "life." The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) defines probiotics as "living microorganisms, which, when administered in adequate amounts, confer a health benefit on the host." Yes, they are actually alive, and most of these microorganisms are bacteria. How can bacteria be beneficial to us?

In the digestive system, it is important to make the distinction between what we would call "good" bacteria and "bad" bacteria. The key for optimal health is indeed keeping the right balance between the "good" bacteria and the "bad" bacteria. Probiotics are fundamental in improving digestion, and the effectiveness and intrinsic strength of the immune system. Probiotics can be found in dairy products, sauerkraut, miso soup, sourdough bread and kefir and they have been shown effective in increasing mood, helping patients with chronic fatigue syndrome and reducing psychological distress in healthy volunteers. However, probiotics have been criticized because they may easily be killed by heat and the stomach, rendering them ineffective before they’ve even been digested.

For this reason, the consumption of prebiotics is advised: chemicals that induce the growth and/or activity of "good" bacteria. So, while probiotics are “external” live bacteria, prebiotics stimulate the flora which are already present in the intestine. Prebiotics are typically non-digestible fiber compounds that, undigested, pass through the upper part of the gastrointestinal tract. Prebiotic fiber is found in many fruits and vegetables, such as the skin of apples, bananas, onions and garlic, Jerusalem artichoke, chicory root and beans.  

When probiotics and prebiotics are combined, they form synbiotics. Even if this combination may sound ideal and numerous synbiotic combinations are available commercially, the benefit of synbiotics may be limited given that only specific combinations of probiotics and prebiotics support probiotic survival and growth.  

At this point, many more studies are needed to clarify the beneficial effects of probiotics, prebiotics and/or synbiotics, but notwithstanding the intake of them seems a promising tool in augmenting the (human) potential of our mind, besides of our gastrointestinal tract.


Posted by NooCube on December 8, 2016 at 10:58

Are many differences between probiotics and prebiotics but to understand those differences you need first to understand probiotics in all their power. Probiotics can help our gut, can cure candida, can assist us in a healthy diet but the best sources are in foods. Make sure you try probiotics foods before you try probiotic supplements.

Posted by Emma on October 5, 2016 at 22:34

The need for probiotics is definitely rising as you have clearly pointed out in your article but the hardest thing to do is make the difference between different probiotic strains that can be beneficial or not. Another interesting view on this matter can be found here:

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Posted by Pam on August 20, 2016 at 19:13

I’ve been using probiotics with good results for several years know with good success, so much so that I put together my own guide at The benefits of probiotics are often discussed, but you don’t hear so often about mixing their relationship with prebiotics into synbiotics. It will be interesting to see how the science emerges around this.  Thanks for sharing.

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Posted by Daniella on July 1, 2016 at 15:04

Very nice article! I know.. When you lose “good” bacteria in your body (like after you take antibiotics, for example), probiotics can help replace them.

Posted by Adongelo on April 18, 2016 at 16:37

Thanks for this article for probiotics. You’ve probably heard the virtues of probiotics extolled in health magazines and on cartons of Greek yogurt.


Martha M.
Posted by Martha M. on October 30, 2015 at 18:03

I’ve been following a probiotic based diet for quite a while now. Kefir and asparagus are 2 of the most used foods I’ve used. Now I’m looking for a probiotic supplement and after reading different reviews I think that Perfect Biotics is one of the best supplement: .... What is your opinion? Thanks

Healthy Food is Happy Life!

Kate Watson
Posted by Kate Watson on May 4, 2015 at 17:22

Good intro to the differences between probiotics, pre- and synbiotics.  For ideas on which probiotics to try, check pout my blog at  I’ve tried out and reviewed literally dozens of different probiotic brands!

Posted by sandra on April 9, 2015 at 07:54

Have you read the research from the Human Microbiome Project?  Probiotics that are not human strain, do not grow in the human digestive tract + increasing diversity is the most important aspect of probiotic supplementation

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